Strategy for Disaster Reduction A SAFER WORLD in the 21st CENTURY: Disaster
and Risk Reduction
Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) was adopted during the 1999 IDNDR
Programme Forum, held in July 1999 in Geneva, and ratified by the United
Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and General Assembly
during the second meeting of its Commission on Sustainable Development.
More than 20 speakers at the CSD spoke in favour of the Strategy and
the proposed institutional arrangements in November 1999, and a resolution
to that effect was adopted.
is a summary of the International Strategy as agreed to during the July
1999 IDNDR Programme forum. The whole text may be found at
While hazards are
inevitable, and the elimination of all risk is impossible, there are many
technical measures, traditional practices, and public experience that
can reduce the extent or severity of economic and social disasters. Hazards
and emergency requirements are a part of living with nature, but human
behavior can be changed. In the words of the Secretary General,
We must, above
all, shift from a culture of reaction to a culture of prevention. Prevention
is not only more humane than cure; it is also much cheaper
all, let us not forget that disaster prevention is a moral imperative,
no less than reducing the risks of war.
To enable all communities
to become resilient to the effects of natural, technological and environmental
hazards, reducing the compound risks they pose to social and economic
vulnerabilities within modern societies.
To proceed from protection
against hazards to the management of risk through the integration of risk
prevention into sustainable development.
- Increase public
awareness of the risks that natural, technological and environmental
hazards pose to modern societies.
- Obtain commitment
by public authorities to reduce risks to people, their livelihoods,
social and economic infrastructure, and environmental resources.
- Engage public
participation at all levels of implementation to create disaster-resistant
communities through increased partnership and expanded risk reduction
networks at all levels.
- Reduce the economic
and social losses of disasters as measured, for example, by Gross Domestic
- Stimulate research
and application, provide knowledge, convey experience, build capabilities
and allocate necessary resources for reducing or preventing severe and
recurrent impacts of hazards, for those people most vulnerable.
- Increase opportunities
for organizations and multi-disciplinary relationships to foster more
scientific and technical contributions to the public decision-making
process in matters of hazard, risk and disaster prevention.
- Develop a more
proactive interface between management of natural resources and risk
- Form a global community
dedicated to making risk and disaster prevention a public value.
- Link risk prevention
and economic competitiveness issues to enhance opportunities for greater
- Complete comprehensives
risk assessments and integrate them within development plans.
- Develop and apply
risk reduction strategies and mitigation measures with supporting arrangements
and resources for disaster prevention at all levels of activity.
- Identify and engage
designated authorities, professionals drawn from the widest possible
range of expertise, and community leaders to develop increased partnership
- Establish risk
monitoring capabilities, and early warning systems as integrated processes,
with particular attention being given to emerging hazards with global
implications such as those related to climate variation and change,
at all levels of responsibility.
- Develop sustained
programs of public information and institutionalized educational components
pertaining to hazards and their effects, risk management practices and
disaster prevention activities, for all ages.
- Establish internationally
and professionally agreed standards / methodologies for the analysis
and expression of the souci-economic impacts of disasters on societies.
- Seek innovative
funding mechanisms dedicated to sustained risk and disaster prevention
- Conduct a national
audit or assessment process of existing functions necessary for a comprehensive
and integrated national strategy of hazard, risk and disaster prevention,
projected over 5-10 and 20 year time periods.
- Conduct dynamic
risk analysis with specific consideration of demographics, urban growth,
and the interaction or compound relationships between natural, technological
and environmental factors.
- Build, or where
existing, strengthen regional/sub-regional, national and international
approaches, and collaborative organizational arrangements that can increase
hazard, risk and disaster prevention capabilities and activities.
- Establish coordination
mechanisms for greater coherence and improved effectiveness of combined
hazard, risk and disaster prevention strategies at all levels of responsibility.
- Promote and encourage
know-how transfer through partnership and among countries with particular
attention given in the transfer of experience amongst those countries
most exposed to risks.
- Establish national,
regional/sub-regional, and global information exchanges, facilities,
or websites dedicated to hazard, risk and disaster prevention, linked
by agreed communication standards and protocols to facilitate interchange.
- Link efforts of
hazard, risk and disaster prevention more closely with the Agenda 21
implementation process for enhanced synergy with environmental and sustainable
- Focus multi-year
risk reduction strategies on urban concentration and mega-city environments.
- Institute comprehensive
application of land-use planning and programmes in hazard prone-environments.
- Develop and apply
standard forms of statistical recording of risk factors, disaster occurrences
and their consequences to enable more consistent comparisons.
- Undertake periodic
reviews of accomplishments in hazard, risk and disaster reduction efforts
at all levels of engagement and responsibility.
- Study the feasibility
of specific alternative funding and resource allocation modalities that
can ensure continued commitment to sustained risk and disaster prevention