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Multaneously rallying conservation groups (http://crosscut.com/2014/ 04/northwest-forest-plan-20-years-battles-obama/). Perhaps the Multaneously rallying conservation groups (http://crosscut.com/2014/ 04/northwest-forest-plan-20-years-battles-obama/). Perhaps the simplest but most critical molecular analyses required for conservation of the Northern Spotted Owl was to define its taxonomic status (Fig. three). There had been millions of dollars of timber, jobs, as well as other resources riding on determining the limits of its range. Thus, it was imperative to establish if there were 1? species or subspecies to be thought of for protection beneath the U.S. Endangered Species Act. In two studies (B) employing 3 markers (mtDNA, microsatellites, and RAPDs), we found agreement for 3 subspecies: Northern (S. o. caurina), California (S. o. occidentalis), and Mexican (S. o. lucida) with evidence for subspecies hybridization exactly where taxa met geographically (Haig et al. 2001, 2004a,b). The CX-4945 challenge of intraspecific Northern-California Spotted Owl hybrids complex conservation action plans simply because the ESA only addresses problems for hybrids in captive situations (O'Brien and Mayr 1991). This became a bigger concern when we discovered proof that Northern Spotted Owls were hybridizing with Barred Owls (Strix varia) that have been promptly expanding their variety in to the Pacific Northwest. Not knowing how in depth this hybridization could be, we created mtDNA, microsatellite, and AFLP markers to differentiate these taxa for use by law enforcement laboratories (Haig et al. 2004a,b; Funk et al. 2006, 2008a). Even just after the markers were developed, there was title= fpsyg.2014.00726 a legal conundrum as to the way to take care of a bird that looked like an ESA-protected Northern Spotted Owl but genetically was a Barred Owl/Northern Spotted Owl hybrid. A little-used clause in the ESA (section four(e)) offered a prospective resolution (Haig and Allendorf 2006). This `similarity of appearance' clause offers protection for species which can be not listed but closely resemble an ESA-listed species. Understanding the genetic status of Northern Spotted Owls was the following crucial step. We started by taking a landscape genetics approach (Manel and Holdregger 2013) whereby we could examine the relationship in between a random distribution Figure three (A) Northern Spotted Owl female and two older chicks of genes with a random distribution of geographic points (photo by Sheila Whitmore), (B) Distribution of sample sites within the across the selection of the Northern Spotted Owl (Funk et al. selection of the Northern Spotted Owl (from Funk et al. 2010) (Box 3). 2008b). We didn't find important breaks in gene flow but we did come across restrictions in gene flow in attributes including the Cascade and Coast Variety mountains also as dry river valleys (Fig. 3). A closer investigation into restricted gene flow indicated that Northern Spotted Owls general had probably undergone a substantial current population bottleneck (Funk et al. 2010). The results were the identical when analyses have been broken down by area (e.g., Cascade Mountains, Olympic peninsula, and so on.) and local populations. The bottleneck signature was strongest for owls within the Washington Cascades, an area known to become experiencing a substantial population decline (Forsman et al. 2011). In reality, when we compared our bottleneck outcomes title= jir.2014.0026 for neighborhood populations with population development rates for the 14 demographic study places monitored over the previous 20+ years, there was a sturdy correlation involving a substantial population bottleneck and considerable decline in lambda (population growth price) (Funk et al.

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