Distinctive CDK inhibitor Specialists To Have A Look At On Bebo

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, 2003). Interestingly, none of the genes associated with feed efficiency, increased body weight, increased milk fat and milk protein, conditions most associated with cows that will have greater fertility, was associated with physical GNAT2 activity at oestrus, and only prolactin receptor showed a tendency (P?=?0.053). Likewise, none of the genes linked to reproduction was associated except for ACT_IIB_95 (P?=?0.039). The STAT5A mutant was associated (P?=?0.025); however, that gene is associated with decreased milk fat and milk protein, which is counter-intuitive. Several factors are relevant to this lack of association between SNPs and oestrous expression, but there are three primary considerations. Firstly, although links have been found between physiological mechanisms controlling metabolism and fertility ( Garnsworthy et al., 2008), such mechanisms have not been investigated in relation to oestrous expression. It is possible that the link between metabolism and oestrous expression is not as great as that between metabolism and other aspects of fertility. Secondly, it is important to distinguish between phenotypic and genotypic associations. The low heritability of reproductive and productive efficiency traits in dairy cows emphasises the overwhelming contribution of environmental factors in determining fertility and performance. With regard to oestrous expression, Dobson et al. (2008) argue that it is the inability to meet the demands of the high-yielding cow that leads to SNS-032 chemical structure increased disease incidence, reduced fertility and poor expression of oestrus. This leads to the third consideration, which is the population studied. The number of cows studied was limited, activity at oestrus could only be measured in cows exhibiting oestrus, and all cows were in one well-managed herd, which limits both genetic and phenotypic diversity of the population. see more Furthermore, fertility studies involving cows used in the current study (e.g. Garnsworthy et al., 2009) have demonstrated that reproduction can be altered independently of milk yield, energy balance and feed efficiency. Further work is needed to complement and extend the results of the current study. With a larger population, including cows on a range of farms, confirmation of the involvement of SNPs tending towards significance may be realised. The current study identified SNPs on two genes, ACVR2B and STAT5A, which were associated with activity at oestrus (P?

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