Health, Disasters and Risk
 
 
 
 
7
Mitigation and preparedness
   
Title: Benchmarking emergency preparedness: emergency and humanitarian action
Author(s): By the World Health Organization (WHO)
Source: WHO, 2007
Pages: 19 p.
Abstract: Benchmarking is a strategic process often used by businesses to evaluate and measure performance in relation to the best practices of their sector. The Emergency and Humanitarian Action Programme (EHA) of the WHO South-East Asia Regional Office (SEARO) and its partners have applied the process of setting benchmarks as a tool to increase performance in emergency preparedness and response. The publication introduces the SEARO benchmark framework, which consists of benchmarks, standards and indicators and a checklist. It also outlines the process behind the conception and the intended use in and by the countries.
 
Title: Computer based mass casualty management simulation exercise: MUSTER guidelines
Author(s): By the Emergency and Humanitarian Action (EHA), World Health Organization (WHO)
Source: EHA, WHO, 2003
Pages: 44 p.
Abstract: The 2003 guidelines are based on experiences gained in Nepal in using a computer-based training approach to mass casualty management trainings. The guidelines can be used by trainers to plan and implement similar trainings using the MUSTER software, or other similar types of simulation tools.
 
Title: Conclusions and recommendations: meeting on evaluation of preparedness and response to hurricanes Georges and Mitch, 16-19 February 1999, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
Author(s): By the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), World Helath Organization (WHO)
Source: PAHO/WHO, 1999
Pages: 39 p.
Abstract: More than 400 professionals from 48 countries met at this meeting to identify lessons learned with regard to the preparedness for and response to two of the most devastating hurricanes of the last decades: Georges and Mitch. The recommendations in this document were drafted in 20 working group sessions that were coordinated by one or several of the co-sponsoring international organizations: the Pan American Health Organization, UNICEF, the United Nations Development Program, the Office of Coordination for Humanitarian Affairs and the Secretariat of the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. In presenting these recommendations, the document maintains the original format of the meeting so that readers can easily identify specific areas of interest. At the end of the document is a summary of the evaluation of the meeting made by the participants.
 
Title: Emergency preparedness and response: from lessons to action report of the regional consultation, Bali, Indonesia, 27-29 June 2006
Author(s): By the World Health Organization (WHO)
Source: WHO, 2007
Pages: 70 p.
Abstract: Even for veteran emergency health experts, the tsunami was a unique experience, as one of the worst natural disasters in recent history, and one that affected six countries of the WHO South-East Asia Region simultaneously. The event marked a watershed in the history of disasters in the region. It highlighted many critical issues, and enabled comparisons between different approaches to disaster management in different countries. After the response and early recovery phase, the current period has provided an appropriate time to reflect on the work done and strategies undertaken in the past, and learn how the lessons from this experience can be applied to future disasters all over the world. The regional consultation focused on how to act on and incorporate the lessons learnt from the tsunami into disaster management policies and plans of every nation, so that they could be implemented to strengthen emergency preparedness and response at every level in every country in the region. The emphasis was on action.
 
Title: Emergency preparedness and risk management: WHO five-year strategy for the health sector and community capacity-building
Author(s): By the World Health Organization (WHO)
Source: WHO, 2007
Pages: 19 p.
Abstract: Major emergencies, disasters and other crises are no respecters of national borders and never occur at convenient times. The magnitude of human suffering caused by these events is huge, and many aspects of people’s lives are affected – health, security, housing, access to food, water and other life commodities, to name just a few. That is why it is vital to have emergency plans in place, so that the effects of disasters on people and their assets can be mitigated, and a coordinated response may be launched as effectively and efficiently as possible when disasters or other crises strike. The aim is to save lives and reduce suffering. This strategy is based on the recommendations of a global consultation held by WHO in February 2006 that brought together experts in emergency preparedness and response from around the world. The consultation was followed by several important activities to discuss the various components of the strategy and to reach consensus on the objectives and key strategic directions.
 
Title: Enhancing health security, the challenges in the WHO European Region and the health sector response: Regional Committee for Europe, Fifty-sixth session, Copenhagen, 11–14 September 2006
Author(s): By the World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe (WHO/EURO)
Source: WHO/EURO, 2006
Pages: 21 p.
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to outline current and potential future threats to human health with potential implications for security, to take stock of lessons learnt, to propose a way forward towards enhancing health security in the WHO European Region and, more specifically: to propose a strategic framework for action to enhance health and security at a pan-European level; to elaborate and agree on a road map to tackle health and security through an analysis of health system capacities and an approach towards strengthened health systems; and to promote an effective and comprehensive health systems response by supporting Member States in strengthening preparedness measures for health threats with security implications.
 
Title: Establishing a mass casualty management system
Author(s): By the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), World Health Organization (WHO)
Source: PAHO/WHO, 2001
Pages: 58 p.
Abstract: Many lives have been lost in mass casualty situations because resources were not mobilized efficiently. The challenge we face is this: the more scarce the resource, the more efficient the organization must be. This publication describes the steps in designing a mass casualty management system that will ensure the highest possible survival rate. It focuses on the involvement of police, firefighters, Red Cross volunteers, and health center and hospital staff. If these professionals form part of the structure that we refer to as the mass casualty management "system" in this publication, they can contribute enormously to saving lives.
 
Title: Guía de preparativos de salud frente a erupciones volcánicas: módulo 2, protección de los servicios de salud frente a erupciones volcánicas
Author(s): By the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), Humanitarian Aid Office of the European Commission (ECHO)
Source: PAHO, ECHO, 2005
Pages: 80 p.
Abstract: La mayor parte de los volcanes activos en el mundo están en América Latina y el Caribe, y millones de personas viven en pueblos y ciudades situados en los alrededores. A través de la historia, varios de estos volcanes han demostrado su gran capacidad de destrucción. La nueva Guía de Preparativos de Salud Frente a Erupciones Volcánicas brinda material de apoyo para la preparación de planes de contingencia del sector de la salud para enfrentarse a estas emergencias. La preparación de esta Guía involucró un largo proceso de recolección, sistematización y validación de la información, durante el cual fueron consultados más de 100 expertos, especialmente de Colombia y Ecuador. Esta Guía describe estrategias para diagnosticas el riesgo volcánico, analizar la vulnerabilidad e los establecimientos de salud y planificar la respuesta en caso de erupciones volcánicas. Incluye una guía para la formulación del plan hospitalario de contingencia para eventos volcánicos.
 
Title: Guidelines on preparedness before, during and after an ashfall
Author(s): By the International Volcanic Health Hazard Network (IVHHN), Cities and Volcanoes Commission, GNS Science and the United States Geological Survey (USGS)
Source: IVHHN, USGS
Pages: 14 p.
Abstract: This document has been prepared to promote the safety of those who experience volcanic ashfall. It details procedures to follow if warning of a volcanic ashfall is given, recommends what to do during ashfall, and what methods are most effective for cleaning up volcanic ash after the event.
 
Title: Health sector emergency preparedness and response plan Nepal: disaster analysis, management framework and planning guidelines
Author(s): By the Epidemiology and Disease Control Division (EDCD), Ministry of Health, Department of Health Services, Nepal, and World Health Organization (WHO)
Source: EDCD, WHO, 2003
Pages: 40 p.
Abstract: The health sector plan from 2003 presents the various disaster scenarios that confront Nepal along with policy recommendations on how to respond to emergencies. It is the outcome of an on-going planning process to prepare the health sector for future emergencies.
 
Title: Management of dead bodies after disasters: a field manual for first responders
Author(s): By Oliver Morgan, Morris Tidball-Binz, Dana Van Alphen
Source: Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), World Health Organization (WHO), International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), 2006
Pages: 47 p.
Abstract: This field manual presents simple recommendations for non-specialists to manage the recovery, basic identification, storage and disposal of dead bodies following disasters. It also makes suggestions about providing support to family members and communicating with the public and the media. This manual will be useful during the immediate response to a disaster and where forensic response is unavailable. Furthermore, it will be useful for those preparing mass fatality disaster plans. The recommendations are relevant for local, regional and national authorities as well as for non-governmental organizations.
 
Title: Management of dead bodies in disaster situation
Author(s): By the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), World Health Organization (WHO)
Source: PAHO/WHO, 2004
Pages: 176 p.
Abstract: This manual provides the technical information needed to support State authorities in the proper management of dead bodies, taking into account the following principles: the body of a person killed as a result of a disaster does not pose a risk for infection; mass graves should never be used for burying disaster victims; under no circumstances should mass cremation of bodies take place when this goes against the cultural and religious practices of the affected population; finally, it is necessary to exhaust every effort to identify the bodies, and as a last resort bury unidentified corpses in individual niches or graves. This is a basic human right of surviving family members. This manual should be of interest to specialists in disasters and in management of human remains, and especially national or local authorities who are responsible for ensuring that bodies are treated in a dignified manner and that the human rights of those affected by disasters are respected.
 
Title: Mass casualty management systems: strategies and guidelines for building health sector capacity
Author(s): By the World Health Organization (WHO)
Source: WHO, 2007
Pages: 34 p.
Abstract: The common gaps in health system preparedness around the world are generally well understood, but they are often not addressed in a comprehensive and systematic way. In particular, many countries have not yet developed Mass Casualty Management Plans, and communities are too often left alone to develop preparedness and response plans without guidance from higher levels. In September 2006, a Global Consultation on Mass Casualty Management was held in Geneva at WHO headquarters. The guidelines set out in this document are the direct result of the consultation. They are designed to help policy makers, decision makers and emergency managers at all levels, especially at community level, to overcome the gaps in health system preparedness for managing mass casualty incidents.
 
Title: Mitigation of disasters in health facilities: general Issues, volume 1
Author(s): By the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), World Health Organization (WHO)
Source: PAHO/WHO, 1993
Pages: 43 p.
Abstract: This document aims to present a series of reflections on the criteria governing design and construction of health infrastructure and puts forward recommendations about ways to mitigate risk to the population and to the investment made in construction of health infrastructure.
 
Title: Mitigation of disasters in health facilities: administrative issues, volume 2
Author(s): By the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), World Health Organization (WHO)
Source: PAHO/WHO, 1993
Pages: 71 p.
Abstract: The hospital system constitutes one of the fundamental components of the health sector. Although the primary health care level has received special attention in recent years, this document refers essentially to infrastructure of the second and third level.
 
Title: Mitigation of disasters in health facilities: architectural issues, volume 3
Author(s): By the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), World Health Organization (WHO)
Source: PAHO/WHO, 1993
Pages: 80 p.
Abstract: This document aims to present a series of considerations on the criteria governing architectural design of health infrastructure and offers recommendations that should be discussed by participants representing various disciplines on ways to mitigate risk both to the population and to the investment made in construction of health facilities.
 
Title: Mitigation of disasters in health facilities: engineering issues, volume 4
Author(s): By the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), World Health Organization (WHO)
Source: PAHO/WHO, 1993
Pages: 84 p.
Abstract: It bears noting that many of the damaged hospitals have been designed in accordance with standards of seismic-resistant construction. This suggests that the structural design of hospitals should be carried out with much greater care than in the case of more conventional designs and that it may not be enough to simply plan the structural design for forces greater than those used in calculations for residential or office buildings. The structural design should include decisions on safety, resistance, and ductility, not only with regard to the purely physical aspects that earthquakes entail but also with regard to social, economic, and human criteria that bear on the planning of the hospital.
 
Title: Preventing harmful health effects of heat-waves
Author(s): By the World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe (WHO/EURO)
Source: WHO/EURO, 2006
Pages: 4 p.
Abstract: Recent heat-waves have caused serious health and social problems in the WHO European Region. These effects can be prevented. Prevention demands a proactive, multidisciplinary approach to preparedness, planning and response. Over the last few years, several countries have developed action plans, including France and Italy. These include the triggering of heat health warnings in case of certain meteorological conditions, activation of social and health care networks, development and distribution of a heatwave plan, provision of practical advice to the population and collection of real-time health data (for example, on mortality). The WHO Regional Office for Europe, in collaboration with The European Commission (EC) Directorate-General for Health and Consumer Affairs, has developed expertise through an EC project called EuroHEAT and has established a network to identify effects, risk factors, effective interventions and early-warning systems. Countries are invited to participate.
 
Title: "Reconstruction and mitigation programs in Jamaica: post hurricane Gilbert" international conference on disaster mitigation in health facilities (Mexico city, 26-28 February 1996)
Author(s): By Africo D.Adams
Source: PAHO, 1996
Pages: 19 p.
Abstract: This paper briefly describes the island’s exposure to hurricanes and earthquakes, and the impact of Hurricane Gilbert, 1988, on Jamaica. It describes the then existing disaster mitigation strategies, and identifies the major areas of damage and failure. It lists the steps taken immediately after the hurricane, to identify the deficiencies and set new strategies for repair, retro-fitting and mitigation.
 
Title: Report on the consultation on health disaster preparedness, mitigation and response in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, Syria, 2003
Author(s): By the World Health Organization (WHO)
Source: WHO, 2003
Pages: 16 p.
Abstract: The WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean (EMRO) held a consultation on health disaster preparedness, mitigation and response in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in Damascus, Syrian Arab Republic, on 1–4 December 2003. The objectives of the meeting were to define regional/country vulnerability and needs for disaster mitigation; build consensus on all aspects of a 5-year draft regional strategy for disaster preparedness; and provide guidance for the formulation of a 5-year preparedness mitigation, prevention and response workplan. The consultation was attended by representatives from 11 countries of the region: Afghanistan, Egypt, Jordan, Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Morocco, Pakistan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia and Republic of Yemen. Active participation from UN agencies (UNICEF, UNDP and ISDR), the European Union and the International Federation of Red Cross/Red Crescent Societies enriched the debates and promoted an interagency and intersectoral approach to this important topic.
 
Title: Risk reduction and emergency preparedness: WHO six-year strategy for the health sector and community capacity development
Author(s): By the World Health Organization (WHO)
Source: WHO, 2007
Pages: 20 p.
Abstract: The World Conference on Disaster Reduction, held in January 2005 in Kobe, Japan, adopted the Framework for Action 2005–2015: Building Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters and provided and promoted a strategic and systematic approach to reducing vulnerabilities and risks to hazards. WHO will partner the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) and other UN and non-UN agencies in the 2008–2009 Safe Hospitals Initiative, which aims at building the resilience of hospitals and other health facilities to disasters, both structural and functional, so that they would still be functional under emergency situations. Under the aegis of international policies, including WHO resolutions, and as part of its mandate as the international health lead agency and the IASC global health cluster leader, WHO intensified its work during 2006 in the field of emergency preparedness and response. Beginning with the definition of its global strategy and moving gradually into the implementation of the main directions highlighted in the strategy. This strategy is based on the recommendations of a global consultation held by WHO in February 2006 that brought together experts in emergency preparedness and response from around the world. The consultation was followed by several important activities to discuss the various components of the strategy and to reach consensus on the objectives and key strategic directions.
 
Title: Strengthening health systems' response to crises, towards a new focus on disaster preparedness: report on a WHO workshop, Skopje, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, 13–15 July 2004
Author(s): By the World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe (WHO/EURO)
Source: WHO/EURO, 2004
Pages: 41 p.
Abstract: Disasters have enormous consequences, socially and economically, and have long-term detrimental effects, especially on vulnerable societies and population groups. The people affected have a right to receive adequate help. Support and appropriate assistance should be provided according to their specific needs. Disaster preparedness is primarily the responsibility of national authorities and provides an excellent opportunity for community involvement. This report is a result of a three-day workshop on strengthening national disaster preparedness capacity of health systems to respond to crises in the WHO European Region. The workshop was attended by representatives of 12 Member States of the European Region, laying the ground for further collaboration to improve effective partnerships between all Member States and the WHO Regional Office for Europe in the field of disaster preparedness and response.