Health, Disasters and Risk
Mental health
Title: A guide to managing stress in crisis response professions
Author(s): By the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
Source: SAMHSA, 2005
Pages: viii-27 p.
Abstract: The ongoing threat of both natural and human-caused disasters makes it imperative that we support and encourage the brave men and women who prepare for and respond to these events—our crisis response professionals. These professionals include first responders, public health workers, construction workers, transportation workers, utilities workers, volunteers, and a multitude of others. This easy-to-use pocket guide focuses on general principles of stress management and offers simple, practical strategies that can be incorporated into the daily routine of managers and workers. It also provides a concise orientation to the signs and symptoms of stress.
Title: Developing cultural competence in disaster mental health programs: guiding principles and recommendations
Author(s): By Jean Athey, Jean Moody-Williams
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), 2003
Pages: 60 p.
Abstract: Peoples’ reactions to disaster and their coping skills, as well as their receptivity to crisis counseling, differ significantly because of their individual beliefs, cultural traditions, and economic and social status in the community. To respond effectively to the mental health needs of all disaster survivors, crisis counseling programs must be sensitive to the unique experiences, beliefs, norms, values, traditions, customs, and language of each individual, regardless of his or her racial, ethnic, or cultural background. Disaster mental health services must be provided in a manner that recognizes, respects, and builds on the strengths and resources of survivors and their communities. The purpose of this guide is to assist States and communities in planning, designing, and implementing culturally competent disaster mental health services for survivors of natural and human-caused disasters of all scales.
Title: Disaster mental health: crisis counseling programs for the rural community
Author(s): By Glenn Jackson, Charles G. Cook
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), 1999
Pages: 62 p.
Abstract: The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS) of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), brought together six Midwest flood States for a conference to discuss lessons learned. The results of the conference and a review of reports from past crisis counseling projects clearly show that implementing crisis counseling services in rural areas raises challenges and opportunities for innovative outcomes. This publication shares these challenges and outcomes with those who play a role in providing crisis counseling services after a disaster in a rural area. It provides an overview of key points for consideration in planning and implementing rural crisis counseling services.
Title: Disaster psychiatry handbook
Author(s): By the Committee on Psychiatric Dimensions of Disaster, American Psychiatry Association (APA)
Source: APA, 2004
Pages: 56 p.
Abstract: This document was developed by the APA Committee on Psychiatric Dimensions of Disaster to provide information useful to psychiatrists in preparing for and responding to disasters and other traumatic events. It features several articles on disaster psychiatry as well as recommendations for broader involvement of psychiatrists in disaster work developed during conferences sponsored by the Emergency Services and Disaster Relief Branch, Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) and the America Psychiatric Foundation.
Title: Guía práctica de salud mental en situaciones de desastres: serie manuales y guías sobre desastres no.7
Author(s): By Jorge Rodríguez, Mônica Zaccarelli Davoli, Ricardo Pérez
Source: Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), World Helath Organization (WHO), 2006
Pages: 191 p.
Abstract: Los efectos de los desastres sobre la salud física suelen ser bastante conocidos, con secuelas a corto, mediano y largo plazo. En cambio, no siempre se han reconocido de igual manera los efectos sobre la salud mental, a pesar de haberse demostrado que, en situaciones de desastres y emergencias complejas, se produce un incremento de los signos de sufrimiento psicológico, como la aflicción y el miedo; se puede aumentar en cierta medida la morbilidad psiquiátrica y otros problemas sociales. Se estima que entre una tercera parte y la mitad de la población expuesta (según la magnitud del evento y otros factores) sufre alguna manifestación psicológica; aunque debe destacarse que no todas pueden calificarse como patológicas, la mayoría debe entenderse como reacciones normales ante situaciones de gran significación o impacto. También, se ha demostrado que, después de la emergencia propiamente dicha, los problemas de salud mental en los sobrevivientes requieren de atención durante un periodo prolongado, cuando tienen que enfrentar la tarea de reconstruir sus vidas.
Title: Insights into the concept of stress
Author(s): By Cyralene P. Bryce
Source: Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), World Health Organization (WHO), 2001
Pages: 77 p.
Abstract: The SMID Program is a comprehensive, peer-driven, multi-component stress management program which is administered on a volunteer basis and was designed to prevent and to mitigate the psychological dysfunction which exposure to traumatic situations like disasters may cause in emergency response personnel. The program is based on the principles of crisis intervention and critical incident stress management and it is not intended to take the place of professional therapy. Instead, it seeks to provide persons with the knowledge and skills to better understand, recognize and manage their emotional responses to traumatic situations. While the SMID Program was developed with emergency response personnel and disaster workers as its primary target group, the principles of the program, with appropriate modification, can be readily extended for use in the broader community, including with children and adolescents, to prevent and mitigate traumatic stress. This workbook, Insights into the Concept of Stress, and the companion workbook, Stress Management in Disasters, were designed to provide the basic training material for persons who will be providing such a service.
Title: Mental health all-hazards disaster planning guidance
Author(s): By the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
Source: SAMHSA, 2003
Pages: 64 p.
Abstract: Better planning can help make available appropriate interventions to those in need, and help promote resiliency and recovery. It also provides an opportunity for a more efficient mental health response. It is possible, with sound, integrated planning, to fill the new, complex roles of identifying disease outbreaks, integrating health and mental health response, and conducting epidemiological surveillance—all of which are necessary in the new age of bioterrorism threats. To that end, the Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS), within the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), collaborated with the National Association for State Mental Health Program Directors (NASMHPD) to assess the status of disaster mental health plans in the country, and provide guidance to States regarding important components in the planning process as well as potential content and organization of viable plans. This document is the result of that process. Along with the comprehensive matrix for planners found in Appendix A, this document is intended to help guide State and local mental health agencies create or revise plans for response to human or natural disasters and emergencies.
Title: Mental health services in disasters: instructor's guide
Author(s): By Raquel E. Cohen
Source: Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), 2000
Pages: 176 p.
Abstract: This book is composed of a noteworthy summary of the most updated knowledge in this field, in a world in which the effects from natural disasters are increasingly more dramatic - be they hurricanes, earthquakes, volcanoes, or floods, etc. Crucial aspects in the management of different disaster victims are emphasized, with special attention to those most vulnerable: children, the aged, HIV patients, individuals with substance abuse problems and their interaction with other victims.
Title: Mental health services in disasters: manual for humanitarian workers
Author(s): By Raquel E. Cohen
Source: Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), 2000
Pages: 96 p.
Abstract: The manual is written in a simple and easy-to-read format for those persons who, in some way, are involved in providing relief to an effected population, as well as in the short and long-term psychosocial and psychophysiological repercussions from the disaster. Its main objective is to provide an orderly, immediate and efficient flow of relief, training public mental health elements and preventing already-identified adverse consequences.
Title: Psychological health before, during and after an economic crisis: results from Indonesia, 1993–2000
Author(s): By Jed Friedman, Duncan Thomas
Source: World Bank, 2007
Pages: 24 p.
Abstract: The 1997 Indonesian financial crisis resulted in severe economic dislocation and political upheaval, and the detrimental consequences for economic welfare, physical health, and child education have been previously established in numerous studies. We also find the crisis adversely impacted population psychological well-being. The document shows substantial increases in several different dimensions of psychological distress among male and female adults across the entire age distribution over the crisis period. In addition, the imprint of the crisis can be seen in the differential impacts of the crisis on low education groups, the rural landless, and residents in those provinces that were hit hardest by the crisis. Elevated levels of psychological distress persist even after indicators of economic well-being such as household consumption had returned to pre-crisis levels suggesting long-term deleterious effects of the crisis on the psychological well-being of the Indonesian population.
Title: Stress management in disasters
Author(s): By Cyralene P. Bryce
Source: Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), World Health Organization (WHO), 2001
Pages: 135 p.
Abstract: Emergency response personnel are unique in that they dedicate their time and energy in assisting persons during stressful times of their lives, for example, after disasters such as hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, etc. By doing this however, they are themselves repeatedly exposed to very stressful situations. Even though their training prepares them to deal with such situations, the reality is that they have a higher than normal risk for developing post-traumatic stress syndromes, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Despite all of this having been well documented and the Caribbean’s repeated exposure to natural disasters, the vast majority of Caribbean countries do not have a comprehensive stress management program in place to preserve the psychological well-being of their emergency response and disaster workers. The Office of Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Relief Coordination Program of the Pan American Health Organization, Regional Office for the Americas of the World Health Organization, took the initiative of bringing resource persons from throughout the region together in late 1998 to develop the Stress Management in Disasters in the Caribbean (SMID) Program.
Title: Tsunami wreaks mental health havoc
Author(s): By the World Health Organization (WHO)
Source: WHO, 2005
Pages: 3 p.
Abstract: Survivors are likely to spend years wrestling with the mental health impact of the Asian tsunami and the earthquake off the Indonesian coast. Aid programmes will quickly reconstruct homes, schools and hospitals, but rebuilding the shattered lives and minds of the people who lost friends, family, homes and their livelihoods will take much longer.