Health, Disasters and Risk
Environment: impacts on health
Title: Ecosystems and human well-being: health synthesis
Author(s): By the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
Source: World Health Organization (WHO), 2005
Pages: 53 p.
Abstract: It is becoming increasingly clear that population growth and economic development are leading to rapid changes in our global ecosystems. In recognition of this, the United Nations’ Secretary-General Kofi Annan, in a 2000 report to the General Assembly entitled: "We the Peoples: The Role of the United Nations in the 21st Century," called for the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment to be undertaken. Since 2001, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment has worked to assess the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being, and establish the scientific basis for actions needed to enhance the conservation and sustainable use of those systems, so that they can continue to supply the services that underpin all aspects of human life. This report represents a call to the health sector, not only to cure the diseases that result from environmental degradation, but also to ensure that the benefits that the natural environment provides to human health and well-being are preserved for future generations.
Title: El Niño and human health: bulletin of the World Health Organization, 2000, 78(9)
Author(s): By R. Sari Kovats
Source: World Health Organization (WHO), 2000
Pages: 9 p.
Abstract: The El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the best known example of quasi-periodic natural climate variability on the interannual time scale. It comprises changes in sea temperature in the Pacific Ocean (El Niño) and changes in atmospheric pressure across the Pacific Basin (the Southern Oscillation), together with resultant effects on world weather. El Niño events occur at intervals of 2–7 years. In certain countries around the Pacific and beyond, El Niño is associated with extreme weather conditions that can cause floods and drought. Globally it is linked to an increased impact of natural disasters. There is evidence that ENSO is associated with a heightened risk of certain vector-borne diseases in specific geographical areas where weather patterns are linked with the ENSO cycle and disease control is limited. Seasonal climate forecasts, predicting the likelihood of weather patterns several months in advance, can be used to provide early indicators of epidemic risk, particularly for malaria. Interdisciplinary research and cooperation are required in order to reduce vulnerability to climate variability and weather extremes.
Title: Environmental health management after natural disaster
Foreword - Preface - Acknowledgment - Part 1 - Part 2 - Annexes
Author(s): By the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)
Source: PAHO, 1982
Pages: 58 p.
Abstract: This document is intended to serve as a guide for those who may be called upon to make emergency decisions after disaster strikes. The recommended environmental health measures have been listed in the order of priority in which they should be taken during an emergency. However, each natural disaster is unique in the degree or type of emergency it poses. In response to any given disaster, decision makers may find it necessary to change the priority assigned to any particular measure. This document is divided into several parts. The first section primarily addresses the effects of natural disasters on environmental health conditions and services. In the second section, environmental health measures are described that should be undertaken in each of three time frames: the predisaster, disaster, and postdisaster periods.
Title: Europe’s environment: The fourth assessment, Executive summary
Author(s): By the European Environment Agency (EEA)
Source: EEA, 2007
Pages: 27 p.
Abstract: The ’Environment for Europe’ process now brings together 56 countries across three continents to jointly address environmental challenges. In support of this process, the European Environment Agency has prepared a series of assessments of the environment for the pan-European region to provide policy-relevant, up-to-date and reliable information on the interactions between the environment and society. This is the fourth report in the series. Where possible the report evaluates progress, primarily against the objectives of the Sixth Environment Action Programme of the European Community and the Environment Strategy for Countries of Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia.
Title: Pragmatic solutions: an assessment of progress 2005
Author(s): By Elroy Bos, Cindy Craker, Deborah Murith, Jean-Yves Pirot
Source: World Conservation Union (IUCN), 2006
Pages: 76 p.
Abstract: The World Conservation Union unites those who recognize the scale and complexity of our collective impact on the earth’s natural resources. People know of the rising risks, and ask for pragmatic solutions. This report measures our ability to deliver those solutions. It shows how we explore options and help make decisions to transform our economies and societies. It assesses our capacity to make a difference in a world that is still defining its common future, and to shift the relationship between people and nature onto a sustainable and equitable trajectory.