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El Niño-southern oscillation (ENSO)

A complex interaction of the tropical Pacific Ocean and the global atmosphere that results in irregularly occurring episodes of changed ocean and weather patterns in many parts of the world, often with significant impacts, such as altered marine habitats, rainfall changes, floods, droughts, and changes in storm patterns.
The El Niño part of ENSO refers to the well-above-average ocean temperatures along the coasts of Ecuador, Peru and northern Chile and across the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, while the Southern Oscillation refers to the associated global patterns of changed atmospheric pressure and rainfall. La Niña is approximately the opposite condition to El Niño. Each El Niño or La Niña episode usually lasts for several seasons.

Recommended Readings

Una visión general sobre el fenómenos del Niño Only Spanish.

Plan de contingencias para enfrentar al fenómeno El Niño 1997-1998. Only Spanish

Recomendaciones de contingencia "El Niño" 2002. Sequía e inseguridad alimentaria en Centro América 2001-2002. Only Spanish

Flood events, El Niño events, and tectonic events.

Crónicas de Desastres - Fenómeno El Niño / Organización Panamericana de la Salud Only Spanish


Forecasts/ climate stages and monitoring of oceanographic and atmospheric parameters

Diagnosis panel

Interactive worldmap with detaileds impacts of El Niño at the local level

Index of links dealing with El Niño phenomenon Only Spanish

El Niño and its impact on Health.